Uganda has not introduced yellow fever vaccine into routine immunization, and the estimated immunity of the general population is low (4.2%) and due to previous ICG-supported reactive vaccination activities in priority areas such as Yumbe, Moyo, Buliisa, Maracha, Koboko (2020), Masaka and Koboko (2019), to a limited extent in Greater Kampala (2017), Masaka, Rukungiri and Kalangala (2016). According to the third edition of the IHR (2005), the international certificate of vaccination against yellow fever becomes valid 10 days after vaccination and is valid for the lifetime of the vaccinated person. A single dose of WHO-approved yellow fever vaccine is sufficient to ensure lasting immunity and lifelong protection against yellow fever. Booster vaccination is not required and is not required for international travellers as a condition of entry. Entry requirements: Mandatory for travelers from all countries. In addition, proof of yellow fever vaccination is required for all travellers leaving Uganda. Risk communication: WHO calls on its Member States to take all necessary measures to provide travellers with good information on risks and preventive measures, including vaccination. Travellers should be informed of the symptoms and signs of yellow fever and are advised to seek prompt medical attention if there are signs and symptoms suggestive of yellow fever infection. Returning infected travellers may pose a risk of establishing local cycles of yellow fever transmission in areas where a competent vector is present. Symptoms include fever, muscle aches with severe back pain, headache, chills, loss of appetite, and nausea or vomiting. 6. In March 2022, the Ministry of Health of Uganda notified WHO of four suspected cases of yellow fever, collecting samples collected between 2 January and 18 February 2022 that tested positive for yellow fever antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and plaque reduction neutralization assay (PRNT) at the Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI). As of March 25, 2022, three additional samples collected between October 1 and October 13, 2021 had tested positive for PRNT antibodies at UVRI.

All seven suspected cases tested negative by polymerase chain reaction. Although the yellow fever vaccine is highly effective (99% effective within 30 days of vaccination), there is a risk of breakthrough in cases. These cases should be investigated to identify and treat possible causes of vaccine failure. The epidemic spread of yellow fever is a risk in Uganda, as it could lead to further intensification if the virus is introduced into crowded urban areas that are known for travel. There is a risk of strengthening and international spread due to frequent population movements (e.g. between Uganda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and South Sudan) combined with low population immunity in some neighbouring countries. All visitors to Uganda now need a valid yellow fever vaccination record from the World Health Organization – which means you must be vaccinated and you must do so 10 to 30 days before you arrive in Uganda. It will also help you enter other East African countries. A yellow fever vaccine is suitable for life. Malaria is always a serious disease and can be a fatal disease. If you contract a fever while travelling to a malaria risk area or after returning home (up to 1 year), you should seek medical attention immediately and inform them of your travel history. An exemption from vaccination in Uganda may be issued by your doctor if the yellow fever vaccine is contraindicated for medical reasons.

Be warned that you may have problems crossing the boundaries and that the vaccination exemption may not be honored or accepted. The yellow fever vaccine is the most effective way to protect against the disease. “The vaccine offers 100% protection. There is no cure. Prevention is what you need. The vaccine is the only way to get protection. Angola is the new African country where yellow fever is active and transmitted. Rwanda has slightly different yellow fever vaccination requirements than Uganda. Health Recommendation: Yellow fever is a risk in Uganda, so the CDC recommends this vaccine for all travelers 9 months of age or older. Surveillance: WHO recommends close monitoring of the situation through active cross-border coordination and information sharing, as cases may occur in neighbouring countries, an outbreak of yellow fever has occurred in neighbouring Kenya and there is a risk of spread. Enhanced surveillance through investigations and laboratory testing of suspected cases is also recommended.

However, a small proportion of patients may experience more severe symptoms of high fever, abdominal pain with vomiting, jaundice, and dark urine caused by acute liver and kidney failure. Death could occur within 7 to 10 days in about half of patients with severe symptoms. There are currently no specific antiviral drugs for yellow fever, but early supportive treatment, such as specific treatment for dehydration, fever, and liver and kidney failure, could improve survival rates. CDC announcement for travelers from the United States: The availability of yellow fever vaccines in the United States is limited. If you need to get vaccinated before your trip, you may need to set aside time and schedule your appointment in advance. Find the nearest clinic. A yellow fever vaccination certificate is a requirement in Uganda for all travellers from 1 year of age. Uganda`s existing and new yellow fever vaccination certificates are valid for life. Pregnant women, babies under one year of age or younger, and people with HIV/AIDS with CD4 counts below 200 are allowed by the authorities to travel without a yellow fever vaccination record. Of the seven suspected cases, epidemiological investigations have been conducted for six cases and one case is under investigation. As of April 25, 2022, five of the six cases studied had a recent history of vaccination and were therefore ruled out due to lack of evidence of vaccine failure, and one case (reported in Wakiso County) was confirmed as yellow fever.

On 6 March 2022, WHO received four suspected cases of yellow fever from the Ugandan Ministry of Health. As of April 25, 2022, a total of seven suspected cases have tested positive for yellow fever antibodies for plaque reduction neutralization.